What is a Pip in Forex: Calculation – Formula – Examples


In this expanded article, we aim to simplify and explain the concept of a pip in forex trading. We’ll delve into what a pip is, introduce pipettes, discuss how pip values are calculated, and provide clear examples to enhance your understanding of this fundamental aspect of forex trading.

Understanding Pips in Forex Trading

In forex trading, “pip” means “percentage in point.” It’s a unit of measurement representing the smallest change in the value between two currencies. For most currency pairs, a pip is usually equivalent to 0.0001. For example, in the case of EUR/USD, if the value shifts from 1.1050 to 1.1051, this 0.0001 USD increase is one pip.

While most pairs are quoted to four decimal places, there are exceptions like the Japanese yen pairs, which are quoted to only two decimal places (e.g., 0.01 for USD/JPY).

The Role of Pipettes

Forex trading also involves ‘pipettes,’ smaller units than pips. These are quoted to five decimal places for most pairs and three for yen pairs. A pipette, or a fractional pip, is a tenth of a pip. For instance, if GBP/USD moves from 1.30542 to 1.30543, this 0.00001 USD change is one pipette.

1 Pip is Equal to How Many Points?

Understanding the relationship between pips and points is crucial for traders. To illustrate, let’s consider the EUR/USD currency pair. If the pair moves from 1.1850 to 1.1851, that’s a movement of one pip. However, if it moves from 1.18500 to 1.18501, that’s a movement of one point. This distinction becomes particularly important when discussing profits and losses and setting stop-loss or take-profit orders in trading.

The situation differs slightly for Japanese yen pairs, like USD/JPY or EUR/JPY. Due to their higher value than other major currencies, these pairs represent a pip by the second decimal place (0.01). Consequently, the third decimal place defines a point for yen pairs (0.001). This means that, like other currency pairs, 10 points also make up one pip for yen pairs.

Forex Pip Calculator: How to Calculate Profit / Loss

A Forex pip calculator is an essential tool for traders in the currency market. The significance of a pip lies in its role in indicating how much profit or loss a trader could make for each price movement in the currency pairs they are trading. The value of a pip isn’t fixed; it changes based on several factors:

  1. Currency Pair: This is the pair you’re trading, such as EUR/USD or GBP/JPY. Each pair behaves differently and has unique characteristics.
  2. Trade Size (Lot Size): Your trade’s size is measured in units. Larger trades have a higher value per pip. A standard lot is 100,000 units, but there are also smaller sizes like mini lots (10,000 units) and micro lots (1,000 units).
  3. Account Currency: The currency your trading account uses. The value of a pip is calculated in this currency.
  4. Exchange Rate (Optional): Some calculators might ask for the current exchange rate of the currency pair for more accuracy.

To use the calculator, input these details. The tool then calculates and displays a pip’s value in your account’s currency. This information is crucial for planning trades and managing risk, as it helps you quantify the potential profit or loss from price movements in the market.

Many online trading platforms come with pip calculators, making it convenient for traders to make quick calculations without leaving their trading environment. Additionally, several free pip calculators are available on financial and Forex trading websites. These tools are user-friendly and accessible, providing valuable assistance to both novice and experienced traders in the dynamic world of currency trading.

Understanding the value of a pip is fundamental in Forex trading. It allows traders to make informed decisions about their trades, manage their risks better, and ultimately aim for successful trading outcomes. Whether you’re just starting or are an experienced trader, using a Forex pip calculator can be a game-changer in your trading strategy.

Pip Calculation Formula in Forex

The value of a pip depends on three factors: the currency pair, its exchange rate, and the size of the trade. The pip value is straightforward when the USD is the quote currency (as in EUR/USD). For a trade size of 10,000 units, multiplying by 0.0001 gives a pip value of $1. So, if you buy 10,000 euros at 1.0801 and sell at 1.0811, you make a profit of 10 pips or $10.

However, the calculation involves the exchange rate when the USD is the base currency (as in USD/CAD). Here, you divide the pip size (0.0001) by the exchange rate, then multiply by the trade size. For example, with USD/CAD at 1.2829 and a trade size 100,000, the pip value is approximately $7.79. Buying 100,000 USD and selling at a one-pip higher rate yields a $7.79 profit.

The pip value calculation differs for non-USD pairs like EUR/JPY or USD/JPY. It’s determined as 0.01 (the pip size for yen pairs) divided by the exchange rate and then multiplied by the trade size. For example, if EUR/JPY is quoted at 132.62, the pip value is calculated by dividing 0.01 by 132.62.

\frac{1}{100} \div 132.62 = 0.0000754

Practical Examples for Clarity

Let’s consider a few practical scenarios to understand pip values better:

  1. EUR/USD: You trade 10,000 units at 1.1050 and exit at 1.1060. Moving ten pips (1.1060 – 1.1050) with a pip value of $1 (for 10,000 units) results in a $10 profit.
  2. USD/CAD: Trading 100,000 units at 1.2829 and exiting at 1.2839, with each pip worth approximately $7.79, results in a $7.79 profit.
  3. EUR/JPY: With a trade size of 100,000 units at a rate of 132.62, a one-pip move would yield a profit or loss of around $0.75.

Understanding pips and pipettes and how to calculate their value is crucial for successful forex trading. It helps traders evaluate potential profits and losses and manage their trades more effectively.

  • 2023-11-10